Exercise/sports: rowing, water skiing, lifting weights, boxing, riding a motorcycle, or any sport where there is a bracing of the body.
Psychological: anxiety, fear, tension, pleasure, aggression, anger, dreaming, stress.
Medical: sleep apnea, oral pain, or pain in other parts of the body.
Drugs: caffeine, amphetamines, cocaine, ecstasy, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline, haloperidol, and venlafaxine.
Bioengineering factors: DCS can be easily initiated by a violation of bioengineering principles in the stomatognathic system, such as prematurities, off-loading of teeth, horizontal distraction of the mandible upon closure, and misalignment of the TMJ components.

McCoy et al. 2007


1. Teeth will flatten (flattened dentition)

2. Chewing muscles are large in size (enlarged muscles of mastication)

3. deformations of the teeth